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Catalogue of threats & vulnerabilities

This list of threats and vulnerabilities can serve as a help for implementing risk assessment within the framework of ISO 27001 or ISO 22301. This list is not final – each organization must add their own specific threats and vulnerabilities that endanger the confidentiality, integrity and availability of their assets.


Below is a list of threats – this is not a definitive list, it must be adapted to the individual organization:

  • Access to the network by unauthorized persons
  • Bomb attack
  • Bomb threat
  • Breach of contractual relations
  • Breach of legislation
  • Compromising confidential information
  • Concealing user identity
  • Damage caused by a third party
  • Damages resulting from penetration testing
  • Destruction of records
  • Disaster (human caused)
  • Disaster (natural)
  • Disclosure of information
  • Disclosure of passwords
  • Eavesdropping
  • Embezzlement
  • Errors in maintenance
  • Failure of communication links
  • Falsification of records
  • Fire
  • Flood
  • Fraud
  • Industrial espionage
  • Information leakage
  • Interruption of business processes
  • Loss of electricity
  • Loss of support services
  • Malfunction of equipment
  • Malicious code
  • Misuse of information systems
  • Misuse of audit tools
  • Pollution
  • Social engineering
  • Software errors
  • Strike
  • Terrorist attacks
  • Theft
  • Thunderstroke
  • Unintentional change of data in an information system
  • Unauthorized access to the information system
  • Unauthorized changes of records
  • Unauthorized installation of software
  • Unauthorized physical access
  • Unauthorized use of copyright material
  • Unauthorized use of software
  • User error
  • Vandalism


Below is a list of vulnerabilities – this is not a definitive list, it must be adapted to the individual organization:

  • Complicated user interface
  • Default passwords not changed
  • Disposal of storage media without deleting data
  • Equipment sensitivity to changes in voltage
  • Equipment sensitivity to moisture and contaminants
  • Equipment sensitivity to temperature
  • Inadequate cabling security
  • Inadequate capacity management
  • Inadequate change management
  • Inadequate classification of information
  • Inadequate control of physical access
  • Inadequate maintenance
  • Inadequate network management
  • Inadequate or irregular backup
  • Inadequate password management
  • Inadequate physical protection
  • Inadequate protection of cryptographic keys
  • Inadequate replacement of older equipment
  • Inadequate security awareness
  • Inadequate segregation of duties
  • Inadequate segregation of operational and testing facilities
  • Inadequate supervision of employees
  • Inadequate supervision of vendors
  • Inadequate training of employees
  • Incomplete specification for software development
  • Insufficient software testing
  • Lack of access control policy
  • Lack of clean desk and clear screen policy
  • Lack of control over the input and output data
  • Lack of internal documentation
  • Lack of or poor implementation of internal audit
  • Lack of policy for the use of cryptography
  • Lack of procedure for removing access rights upon termination of employment
  • Lack of protection for mobile equipment
  • Lack of redundancy
  • Lack of systems for identification and authentication
  • Lack of validation of the processed data
  • Location vulnerable to flooding
  • Poor selection of test data
  • Single copy
  • Too much power in one person
  • Uncontrolled copying of data
  • Uncontrolled download from the Internet
  • Uncontrolled use of information systems
  • Undocumented software
  • Unmotivated employees
  • Unprotected public network connections
  • User rights are not reviewed regularly

To see how to use the ISO 27001 risk register with catalogs of assets, threats, and vulnerabilities, and get automated suggestions on how they are related, sign up for a 14-day free trial of Conformio, the leading ISO 27001 compliance software.

Advisera Dejan Kosutic
Dejan Kosutic
Leading expert on cybersecurity & information security and the author of several books, articles, webinars, and courses. As a premier expert, Dejan founded Advisera to help small and medium businesses obtain the resources they need to become compliant with EU regulations and ISO standards. He believes that making complex frameworks easy to understand and simple to use creates a competitive advantage for Advisera's clients, and that AI technology is crucial for achieving this.

As an ISO 27001 and NIS 2 expert, Dejan helps companies find the best path to compliance by eliminating overhead and adapting the implementation to their size and industry specifics.